The three monotheistic religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Judaism is the oldest surviving monotheistic religion, coming about in the eastern Mediterranean in the second millennium. Abraham is traditionally considered to be the first Jew and to have made a covenant with God. Because Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all recognize Abraham as their first prophet, they are also called the Abrahamic religions. Christianity started as an offshoot of Judaism in the first century B.C. Until the emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 324 B.C., early Christian communities were often persecuted. It was then that the Roman Empire became the Holy Roman Empire, and its capital relocated from Rome to Constantinople. The development of Christian groups derived from major and minor splits. Jesus and Abraham are very important to Christianity. Islam arose in the early seventh century B.C. in the settled desert community of Saudia Arabia. It developed from both the Judeo-Christian tradition and the cultural values of the nomadic Bedouin tribes of Arabia. Mohammad was very important to the Islam’s as well as Abu Bakr. Judaism, Christianity and Islam, originally came from the Hebrews. The Hebrews believed that God was their special protector and was everything, the most powerful, and present everywhere. Like the other two religions, Judaism also has a holy book called the Torah. The Torah is a sacred recording of laws and events in Jewish history. The Jews believe that God gave them the Ten Commandments through Moses, which he was called the Lawgiver. According to the Jewish tradition, God made a covenant, or agreement with Abraham.